electric guitar amp pedals | the science of electric guitars and guitar electronics download

Rotating speakers are specially constructed amplifier/loudspeakers used to create special audio effects using the Doppler effect by rotating the speakers or a sound-directing duct. The rotating speaker creates a chorus-type effect. Named after its inventor, Donald Leslie, it is particularly associated with the Hammond organ but is used with a variety of instruments as well as vocals. The Hammond/Leslie combination has become an element in many genres of music. The Leslie Speaker and the Hammond Organ brands are currently owned by Suzuki Musical Instrument Corporation. The stompbox that simulates this effect is the Uni-Vibe pedal.
This is one of the easier chords to play, once you have your calluses built up. You can play all the strings at once. Crank up a Marshall stack to 11 with this chord, hit it hard, and you’ll feel the beginnings of being a rock hero!
There is little doubt in the word that Clapton and Hendrix are #1 and #2 and those spots are interchangeable between the two of them. These guys took the playing of some of the old timers – Johnson included – to another level. I can live with Page, Gilmour, and several others, but some of the guys I’ve never heard of.
Necks are described as bolt-on, set-in, or neck-through, depending on how they attach to the body. Set-in necks are glued to the body in the factory. They are said to have a warmer tone and greater sustain.[citation needed] This is the traditional type of joint. Leo Fender pioneered bolt-on necks on electric guitars to facilitate easy adjustment and replacement. Neck-through instruments extend the neck the length of the instrument, so that it forms the center of the body, and are known for long sustain and for being particularly sturdy.[citation needed] While a set-in neck can be carefully unglued by a skilled luthier, and a bolt-on neck can simply be unscrewed, a neck-through design is difficult or even impossible to repair, depending on the damage. Historically, the bolt-on style has been more popular for ease of installation and adjustment. Since bolt-on necks can be easily removed, there is an after-market in replacement bolt-on necks from companies such as Warmoth and Mighty Mite. Some instruments—notably most Gibson models—continue to use set-in glued necks. Neck-through bodies are somewhat more common in bass guitars.
The history of signal modification isn’t just one of pleasing the ear through unconventional methods. It works both ways: Guitar effects have modified their users, just as much as their users and engineers have modified their sound. New effects can change a guitarist’s playing ability completely, concealing their technique as well as embellishing it. U2’s The Edge, for example, is known for his restraint of technique by embedding different rhythms within delay settings.
Chorus is an effect that doubles and detunes your signal. It can add an otherworldly effect to your tone, as well as add emphasis to your playing. Chorus adds shimmer and depth to your signal. While it shines in making clean playing more lush, many players, Zakk Wylde included, use chorus to add a doubling effect to their solos, which really will bring it to the forefront of a song. When used carefully, you can even approximate the sound of a 12-string guitar.
The progression of President Trump’s reaction to the latest reported chemical-weapons attack on the Damascus suburb of Douma is less straight line than seesaw. On Sunday, the president warned Syrian Bashar al-Assad’s regime and its backers in Russia and Iran that there would be a “big price to pay” for the assault, in which dozens of people, including children, were killed. The next day, he hedged: Trump announced the U.S. would make “some major decisions” on how to respond within 24 to 48 hours, pending a military assessment, with a more muted assessment of who was responsible: “If it’s Russia, if it’s Syria, if it’s Iran, if it’s all of them together, we’ll figure it out.”
30 Billie Joe Armstrong Billie Joe Armstrong is an American musician, singer, songwriter and actor who is best known as the lead vocalist, primary songwriter, and guitarist of the punk rock band Green Day, which he co-founded with Mike Dirnt.
Chet was THE best guitarist to ever reach popular standings. That doesn’t include the classical guitarists and jazz guitarists who could play him under the table though. Which gets me thinking, this list would be a lot different if it included people that were in the background, but were easily better than anyone popular. For me chet would still make top 100 even on that list though. That’s gotta mean something…
Chorus: Splitting the two signals further apart so that they are over a cycle apart in phase allows you to perceive two distinct signals, like two voices together. Called “chorus”, this effect is perceived as less pronounced than flanging and phasing. It is described as producing a “thickening” of the sound, like reverb.
here’s the GREATEST guitarist of all time– anyone who plays guitar will watch this and find that they can’t play FIVE CONSECUTIVE SECONDS of this song….. and if you say you can, you’re either lying or you must be Mark Knopfler.
After that, I don’t really care. But any person with an actual brain for music knows that Slash, Jimi and Stevie need to be at the top of the list. Come on. Syn is the best of the modern guitar players. That’s why he should be 4th, behind the greats.
If the Complete Technique book is good for quick starts, this would be the bullet train. Another Hal Leonard selection, this is a trim 48 pages for teaching you how to hold a guitar for the first time. Tuning up, easy chords, and strumming. If you got a guitar on Friday, use this to put together your first three-chord jam by Monday. Will it sound good? No, no, it will not. But you’ll have started, which is key. Some of the other books on this list are dense with both concepts and pages, which might delay your starting. Don’t let that happen.
Shame not to see Hank Marvin or Jet Harris on any lists when so many claim they owe them debts of gratitude – certainly for hisory or electric guitar in Uk – also noting Hanks Spanish gypsy playing now
In recent decades, the most “notable classical and cross genre” guitarist was Paco de Lucía, one of the first flamenco guitarists to have successfully crossed over into other genres of music such as classical and jazz. Richard Chapman and Eric Clapton, authors of Guitar: Music, History, Players, describe de Lucía as a “titanic figure in the world of flamenco guitar”,[13] and Dennis Koster, author of Guitar Atlas, Flamenco, has referred to de Lucía as “one of history’s greatest guitarists.”.[14][15]
2) Brian May (Brian May and Mark Knoffler Must be two of the most virtuous guitarists ever – true guitar geniuses). Their musical sense and ability to compose and play the full thing without making any noise or unnecessary tones is unprecedented.
Establishing a guitar school in New York requires competing with the highest concentration of possible distractions. This book follows a step-by-step method for identifying the essentials, but also details practice plans and highlights how to practice. Everyone will keep shouting about how you’ll need to practice hours upon hours a day to become even a serviceable guitarist, but advice on just how will be scarce. I took lessons for years and even I don’t remember how my teacher told me to practice. This book will lead you through a progression from the absolute basics to complicated song construction. My only quibble with this book is that it suggests that A minor is the saddest chord, when it is, in fact, D minor.
Early proponents of the electric guitar on record include Alvino Rey (Phil Spitalney Orchestra), Les Paul (Fred Waring Orchestra), Danny Stewart (Andy Iona Orchestra), George Barnes (under many aliases), Lonnie Johnson, Floyd Smith, Big Bill Broonzy, T-Bone Walker, George Van Eps, Charlie Christian (Benny Goodman Orchestra), Tampa Red, Memphis Minnie, and Arthur Crudup.
An excerpt: “Steeped in mystery, hogwash, and pop voodoo, guitars have become period pieces of almost totemic significance — some timeless, others dated as a crew cut; some spiffy as a showroom Bugatti, others funky as a Studebaker up on blocks.”
{ “thumbImageID”: “Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Black-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000006001”, “defaultDisplayName”: “Fender Standard Stratocaster Electric Guitar with Maple Fretboard”, “styleThumbWidth”: “60”, “styleThumbHeight”: “60”, “styleOptions”: [ { “name”: “Black Gloss Maple Fretboard”, “sku”: “sku:site51310746071083”, “price”: 599.99, “regularPrice”: 599.99, “msrpPrice”: 600.01, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Fender/Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Black-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard-1310746071083.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Black-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000006001”, “brandName”: “Fender”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Black-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000006001-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } , { “name”: “Brown Sunburst Gloss Maple Fretboard”, “sku”: “sku:site51310746071090”, “price”: 599.99, “regularPrice”: 599.99, “msrpPrice”: 600.01, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Fender/Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Brown-Sunburst-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard-1310746071090.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Brown-Sunburst-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000008001”, “brandName”: “Fender”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Brown-Sunburst-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000008001-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } , { “name”: “Arctic White Gloss Maple Fretboard”, “sku”: “sku:site51310746071073”, “price”: 599.99, “regularPrice”: 599.99, “msrpPrice”: 600.01, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Fender/Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Arctic-White-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard-1310746071073.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Arctic-White-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000005001”, “brandName”: “Fender”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Arctic-White-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000005001-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } , { “name”: “Lake Placid Blue Gloss Maple Fretboard”, “sku”: “sku:site51310746071057”, “price”: 599.99, “regularPrice”: 599.99, “msrpPrice”: 600.01, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Fender/Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Lake-Placid-Blue-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard-1310746071057.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Lake-Placid-Blue-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000003001”, “brandName”: “Fender”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Lake-Placid-Blue-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000003001-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } , { “name”: “Candy Apple Red Gloss Maple Fretboard”, “sku”: “sku:site51310746071043”, “price”: 599.99, “regularPrice”: 599.99, “msrpPrice”: 600.01, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Fender/Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Candy-Apple-Red-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard-1310746071043.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Candy-Apple-Red-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000002001”, “brandName”: “Fender”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Standard-Stratocaster-Electric-Guitar-with-Maple-Fretboard-Candy-Apple-Red-Gloss-Maple-Fretboard/H76526000002001-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } ] }
Over the past three years, Gibson’s annual revenue has fallen from $2.1 billion to $1.7 billion, according to data gathered by Music Trades magazine. The company’s 2014 purchase of Philips’s audio division for $135 million led to debt — how much, the company won’t say — and a Moody’s downgrading last year. Fender, which had to abandon a public offering in 2012, has fallen from $675 million in revenue to $545 million. It has cut its debt in recent years, but it remains at $100 million.
The electric guitar was born out of necessity. Going back to the big band era, acoustic guitar players needed an instrument that could be heard over all the brass and woodwind instruments. They also need to be heard over the banjos and mandolins on the front porch. In the 1930s, companies such as Rickenbacker and Gibson started to add guitar pickups to their instruments, which allowed musicians to plug them into an amplifier for added volume. Rickenbacker added a pickup to their Hawaiian guitar (also known as a lap steel guitar) “Frying Pan” model, and similarly, Gibson added a pickup to their electric Hawaiian EH-150 model. Soon after that, Gibson introduced the iconic ES-150, which gave players the very best of both worlds. It gave guitarists a world-class Gibson hollow body guitar with a built-in pickup, which made it the perfect fit for guitarists who played large ensembles. In 1951, Fender revolutionized the electric guitar market even further by unveiling the first ever mass-produced solid body electric guitar, now known as the Telecaster, which was introduced in order to combat the feedback that hollow body electric guitars produced. Then in 1952, Gibson worked closely with one of the most widely respected guitarists of the era to create the first Gibson solid body electric guitar, now known as the Les Paul and named after its co-inventor.

Brian should be much higher on this list! He is a Musical Genius! I never listened to guitarists until I heard Brian May play! Everything he does is PERFECTIOIN! Put him at the Top 5 where he belongs!
Until the 1950s, the acoustic, nylon-stringed classical guitar was the only type of guitar favored by classical, or art music composers. In the 1950s a few contemporary classical composers began to use the electric guitar in their compositions. Examples of such works include Luciano Berio’s Nones (1954) Karlheinz Stockhausen’s Gruppen (1955–57); Donald Erb’s String Trio (1966), Morton Feldman’s The Possibility of a New Work for Electric Guitar (1966); George Crumb’s Songs, Drones, and Refrains of Death (1968); Hans Werner Henze’s Versuch über Schweine (1968); Francis Thorne’s Sonar Plexus (1968) and Liebesrock (1968–69), Michael Tippett’s The Knot Garden (1965–70); Leonard Bernstein’s MASS (1971) and Slava! (1977); Louis Andriessen’s De Staat (1972–76); Helmut Lachenmann’s Fassade, für grosses Orchester (1973, rev. 1987), Valery Gavrilin Anyuta (1982), Steve Reich’s Electric Counterpoint (1987), Arvo Pärt’s Miserere (1989/92), György Kurtág’s Grabstein für Stephan (1989), and countless works composed for the quintet of Ástor Piazzolla. Alfred Schnittke also used electric guitar in several works, like the “Requiem”, “Concerto Grosso N°2” and “Symphony N°1”.
Many distortion pedals can also be used as overdrive pedals simply by reducing the gain, so once again we see how these terms are a little loose. In high gain amps like a Mesa rectifier the amp is taking advantage of gain staging, many pedals do this as well. Gain staging is simply putting one overdriven tone into another and cascading them to produce even more gain or distortion. So in a Mesa, one preamp tube is being run into another to bump up the level of distortion, there can be any number of gain stages. We can also do this by stacking pedals as well, as we will see in the gain staging pedal chain section. Dialing in a good distorted tone can take some time and slight EQ changes can make a big difference.
I have been trying to learn guitar for forever- but the sheer boredom of most teaching styles has turned me off- this is straight to the point- no “hot cross buns”- and perfect for an ADD brain like mine to scim and take what information I need to build a foundation and learn my own way.
I was a little skeptical of John Mayer being on the list, but if you do a YouTube search for John Mayer guitar solos – you’ll find a lot of great guitar work by him. Jeff Beck even declares him to be this generation’s Eric Clapton: http://www.spinner.com/2011/03/30/jeff-beck-interview/
An excerpt: “Like Coca-Cola, Levi’s, or Harley Davidson, Gibson has transcended mere brand-name status to become a presence in life. It seems like Gibson has just always been there; and for all practical musical purposes, that’s true.”
One of the very first things you will play is either an open C or and open G in standard tuning. These are chords and serve as the very fundamental unit of song construction. Getting a new player up and running with a few chords they can strum is one of the first sign posts on the way to playing. It’s pretty rewarding to get that G to ring out clearly. That said, the greatest guitar masters use moveable chord forms to construct thoughtful lead work and intricate guitar lines. Simply put, intimate knowledge of all the chords will serve you at every point in your playing career. To that end, here are 500 chords across 253 pages in a sturdy little book that will lie flat on a table or music stand. I have it and consider it an invaluable resource. For even more, there’s the Guitar Chord Bible: 500 More Chords.
Electric guitars usually[according to whom?] have one to four magnetic pickups. Identical pickups produce different tones depending on location between the neck and bridge. Bridge pickups produce a bright or trebly timbre, and neck pickups are warmer[when defined as?] or more bassy. The type of pickup also affects tone. Dual-coil pickups sound warm,[when defined as?] thick,[when defined as?] perhaps even muddy[when defined as?]; single-coil pickups sound clear,[when defined as?] bright,[when defined as?] perhaps even biting.[when defined as?] Guitars don’t require a uniform pickup type: a common[according to whom?] mixture is the “fat Strat” arrangement of one dual-coil at the bridge position and single coils in the middle and neck positions, known as HSS (humbucker/single/single). Some guitars have a piezoelectric pickup in addition to electromagnetic pickups. Piezo pickups produce a more acoustic sound. The piezo runs through a built-in equalizer (EQ) to improve similitude and control tone. A blend knob controls the mix between electromagnetic and piezoelectric sounds.[according to whom?]

4 Replies to “electric guitar amp pedals | the science of electric guitars and guitar electronics download”

  1. Where there is more than one pickup, a pickup selector switch is usually present to select or combine the outputs of two or more pickups, so that two-pickup guitars have three-way switches, and three-pickup guitars have five-way switches (a Gibson Les Paul three-pickup Black Beauty has a three-position toggle switch that configures bridge, bridge and middle [switch in middle position] and neck pickups). Further circuitry sometimes combines pickups in different ways. For instance, phase switching places one pickup out of phase with the other(s), leading to a “honky”,[when defined as?] “nasal”,[when defined as?] or “funky”[when defined as?] sound. Individual pickups can also have their timbre altered by switches, typically coil tap switches that effectively short-circuit some of a dual-coil pickup’s windings[vague] to produce a tone similar to a single-coil pickup (usually done with push-pull volume knobs).
    Learn a G major. Your ring finger goes on the top string, 3rd fret. The middle finger is for the 5th string, 2nd fret, and you pinky goes all the way to the bottom, on the 3rd fret of the 1st string. Strum all of the strings together to play the chord. If you want, add in the 3rd fret, 2nd string — this not is not necessary, but makes a richer sounding chord.
    Use of audio feedback to enhance sustain and change timbre. Feedback has become a striking characteristic of rock music, as electric guitar players such as Jeff Beck, Pete Townshend and Jimi Hendrix deliberately induced feedback by holding their guitars close to the amplifier. Lou Reed created his 1975 album Metal Machine Music entirely from loops of feedback played at various speeds. A good example of feedback can be heard on Jimi Hendrix’s performance of “Can You See Me?” at the Monterey Pop Festival. The entire guitar solo was created using amplifier feedback.[24]
    A floating or trapeze tailpiece (similar to a violin’s) fastens to the body at the base of the guitar. These appear on Rickenbackers, Gretsches, Epiphones, a wide variety of archtop guitars, particularly Jazz guitars, and the 1952 Gibson Les Paul.[16]
    Flanger pedals are based on a studio sound made when two tapes were mixed together and one was delayed. What this does is add shifting harmonic content to your signal, as well as modulation. Flanging is a very distinct effect that adds a unique whoosh or airplane-like sound. Used with restraint, the flanger adds an interesting dimension to your sound, almost synthesizer-like sound. Used at extreme settings, flangers will over take the tone and bring a solo to completely different sonic level.
    Another negative I found was that this book focuses more on traditional music notation, and places guitar tablature into the background. As a guitar teacher, I believe that tabs are the next best thing to sliced bread, since it makes learning soooo much easier for beginner guitarists. And since learning the guitar is hard, anything that makes it simpler is more than welcome. On the other hand, if you want to learn to read standard music notation, this will be the way to go for you.
    Many amplifiers come with reverb already installed, the problem is, it’s not always that good. Essentially reverb is an echo, and a reverb pedal can provide you with a few different atmospheric reverb sounds.

  2. If the book had been proofread better, I’d give it 5 stars. For example, there are places where the text has both a fret number and standard musical notation, and the fret number is wrong. The book refers you to play along with the instructional CD backing tracks, but it doesn’t tell you which track number to play. It’s easy enough to figure out what was meant, but a little more care would have been better.
    Another early analog delay was the Binson Echorec, this unit recorded your guitar signal onto a magnetic disk much like a hard drive does. This unit was favored by David Gilmour of Pink Floyd. Analog delay pedals made their debut in the 70’s with the use of what was called bucket brigade chips. These chips move the signal down a line like the way an old bucket brigade would pass buckets of water down a line to put out a fire. The most famous of these pedals is the Electro Harmonix Deluxe Memory Man.
    The absence of Joe Satriani makes this list, in my opinion, ridiculous. And how about, Steve Vai, John Petrucci and maybe throw in Michael Angelo Batio, I’m pretty sure they’re better than John Mayer..

  3. Jeff Beck paved the way for heavy metal with the 1968 album ‘Truth’, and virtuoso instumental music with 1974s ‘Blow By Blow’. Beck isn’t the most talented songwriter, and some would say that he’s wilfully underachieved, but he’s one of the best guitarists ever, period. – Floods
    You are welcome Norman! We have a lot of Gibson in the comparison articles. The reason we did not include one in this list is because we do not want to see a newbie focusing more on keeping his guitar safe rather than learning fast 😀

  4. Piezoelectric pickups use a “sandwich” of quartz crystal or other piezoelectric material, typically placed beneath the string saddles or nut. These devices respond to pressure changes from all vibration at these specific points.
    Some effects, and the boxes that produced them, altered musical periods beyond recognition. The valve-driven Watkins Copicat, for example, will forever be associated with the sound of the late 1950s British music “beat” scene. Developed by Charlie Watkins in 1958, this odd machine supported a tape-recording mechanism that would record and play back any sound with varying lengths of delay in-between the replay heads. The device was critical to the rockabilly sound of the late 1950s, the “beat-group” sound of The Shadows, and the Liverpool Merseybeat scene of early 1960s (as well as the Birminghambeat, or Brumbeat scene). The sensation of hearing a guitar warble and wail to its own output encouraged guitarists to experiment with different styles of attack and vigor. For example, the noise that begins and ends the original 1962 recording of “Telstar” by the Tornados was made using the Copicat by creating a loop of echo and reverb effects. This produced what can best be described as some sort of space-echo/attack-helicopter noise.
    Artists have been converging on this sound for more than a decade before Davies used it. In 1951, “Rocket 88” by Ike Turner and the Kings of Rhythm took advantage of a distorted amplifier that had been damaged in transport. The same thing happened to the Johnny Burnette Trio in 1956, when Paul Burlison pulled out a vacuum tube from his amplifier after it fell off the top of the band’s car. He loved the sound so much he used it to record “The Train Kept a-rollin,” which inspired a whole raft of British musicians:
    An excerpt: “Guitar Aerobics is systematically arranged so that each week the musical examples increase in difficulty. If you consider yourself a beginner, you can jump right into Week 1 and feel perfectly comfortable playing the material. Consequently, you’ll have an entire calendar year of material — 365 exercises — to practice!”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *